May 212023

     I had the pleasure of presenting my new talk on Annualism to the Tampa Bay Aquarium Society Saturday.  From the standing ovation … well truthfully … the sitting applause and many very kind comments after the program, I believe it was well taken and useful for many of those attending.

     The group is one I attend most months and as usual, there was a large auction and I was able to get my hands on several different small groups of Goodeids, another of the fish I want to keep.  I was very fortunate this month.  

(left)  Ryan is in the process of auctioning off one of many bags of fish and plants.  The young girl beside him was one of our runners and long with 90-year-old Velma (not in the pictures).  She made over $50 in tips (the jar at the front of the table) this month.  I am a big fan of the idea of ‘paying’ the younf attendees to be runners.  Every month the kids make some money and keeps we old gimps from having to do the job.

The next 2 photos show many, but not all, of the people in attendance this month.  The group is a nice mix of live-bearer, killifish and cichlid hobbyists.  







 Posted by at 10:27 am
May 132023

     There is now proof that birds do carry killifish eggs and distribute them to other waters.

     An article in Hakai Magazine, a coastal science and societies magazine, in 2019 details an fascinating study where swans ingested killifish eggs in a mix of corn and later the eggs were found still fully viable in the droppings of the birds. 

     According to the article “German naturalist Carl Christian Gmelin posited that ducks spread fish to distant waters by carrying fish eggs stuck to their beaks.”  and “British naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace wrote that freshwater fish eggs being carried by birds could be one of several means by which the same fish species wind up in distinct rivers.”

     Apparently two types of killifish eggs were tested in a study by Giliandro G. Silva, a doctoral student at the University of the Sinos Valley in Brazil.   Of five eggs found in the droppings of the swan, one hatched into a viable fry, essentially proving this is a way killifish distribution can be spread.

               Geo-historically, this study could lead to speciation over thousands of years.


 Posted by at 11:23 am
May 022023

     I came across an interesting article (Microplastic occurrence in fish species from the Iquitos region in Peru, western Amazonia) about a microplastic infection of tropical fish originating in the Amazonus area of Peru.  It essentially says all tropical fish were found with the microscopic particles, but carnivorous fish were by far the worst.  This may well be because the carnivorous fish retain the microplastics originally ingested by their prey.

     What this may mean for our hobby is the fish may develop nutritional deficiencies, become thinner and finally die.

     While this study was done from fish found/purchased in a market in Iquitos Peru, most fish were captured by fishermen for sale as food for people, it still represents the present populations of the region.  What humans may eat indicated the fish, hobby or otherwise, are affected by the particles.


The contamination of aquatic environments by microplastic has become a major threat to biodiversity. The presence of microplastic is documented in the aquatic fauna of the oceans, but, in the Amazon basin, reports on microplastic occurrence are few. The present study surveyed microplastic occurrence in fishes in an area of the Peruvian Amazon. We sampled 61 specimens of 15 commercial species from local markets in the city of Iquitos, Loreto Department. We detected a total of 2337 microplastic particles, 1096 in the gills and 1241 in the internal organs (esophagus, stomach, intestine, liver, gonads, pancreas, swim bladder and heart). The prevalence of microplastic particles was 100% and the overall average abundance was of 38.3 particles per individual (17.9 particles per individual in gills and 20.3 particles per individual in internal organs). Most particles were found in carnivorous fish. There was no correlation of particle abundance with fish standard length and weight. These results provided evidence of the degree of microplastic contamination of the fish fauna in the region of Iquitos.


 Posted by at 8:22 am
May 012023

Image result for nematolebias whitei

What  a  way great  way  to  start  the morning.  I had a  huge  hatch of  Nem.  whitei.  The  eggs arrived  yesterday  from a friend, Fred Behrman, who was also kind enough to send me some Nothos and A. australe.   So now I have a few tanks filled and am planning on more.  I also received some eggs from an Aquabid win and am expecting white worm and grindal worm starters today.  Its nice to be a little bit more seriously back into the hobby.

     I still have a lot of work to do in the fishroom – building stands for larger fish and grow out tanks, but at the moment I have 25 tanks – 5G to 30G – up and running.

     I have my brine shrimp hatcheries up and running, but I think my bs eggs have gone bad.  I will be getting some from Brine Shrimp Direct immediately to have good hatches.  BBS are a staple in my fish room.  Fortunately I have frozen BBS for the older fry and fish.  I have been using paramecia and decapsulated BBS (too bad they do not hatch out) for the fry. Hopefully this weekend at the Suncoast Killifish Society meeting there will be a culture of microworms available in the auction.

 Posted by at 8:53 am
Apr 292023

Pantandon podoxys
Photo found on:

Pantandon has recently been raised to family status by Hober and Meinema. Included in the paper on Huber’s Killi-Data, was the creation of 2 new genera and 3 new species.


Killi-Data Series 2023 [116 pages, as a print, ISBN 978-2-9547546-4-2, as a PDF document, ISBN 978-2-9547546-5-9]

Killi-Data Series 2023, 21-73, 10 figs.

Pantanodontinae described by Myers (1955) with monotypic genus (Pantanodon) and species (podoxys) have recently been elevated to family level in Cyprinodontiformes following molecular evidence, and parallelly fossil European cyprinodonts, previously placed in †Paralebias Gaudant 2013, were recently reassigned to the extant East African genus Pantanodon Myers 1955, as the only genus in Pantanodontidae, with all extant and fossil species sharing the laterally placed pelvic girdle and the adaptation of the pelvic fins in males. In this study the status and biogeographical distribution of all species (and all known institutional records) within Pantanodontidae is reviewed. Pantanodon is shown to be a diversified group of related species, recent, extant or fossil. Based on new data, on reassessments of old data and on new diagnoses, a division of Pantanodontidae into four genera is proposed: Pantanodon (nominotypical Tanzanian genus), Malagodon nov.gen. (Malagasy genus), Aliteranodon nov.gen. (Kenyan genus), three genera including (recent) East African species, and †Paralebias which includes all fossil Pantanodontidae European species. Pantanodon podoxys Myers, 1955 is revalidated as a distinct species and a closely related species from Tanga (Tanzania) is described as P. propinquus n.sp. Within Aliteranodon nov.gen., a recently collected species from Koreni (Kenya) is herein described as A. ndoano n.sp. and designated as its type species. Several more species are assigned to this new genus: Haplochilichthys stuhlmanni Ahl, 1924 with which Pantanodon podoxys was previously synonymized is revalidated with a new combination and its type locality is proposed as Pangani, in north-eastern Tanzania, after a detailed review of Stuhlmann’s collecting trips between 1894 and 1901; a misidentified species from Ngomeni (Kenya) is formally described as A. rostratus n.sp. and two misidentified miniature species from Tanzania are formally described as A. bucinus n.sp., from Zanzibar Island, and A. filimbi n.sp., from Bagamoyo mainland. Oryzias madagascariensis Arnoult, 1963 is designated as type species of Malagodon nov.gen.; Haplochilichthys jeanneli Pellegrin, 1935 is reviewed and a lectotype is designated following suspicions it may be placed in Pantanodontidae. Based on five significant osteological differences between recent and fossil species reestablishment of the fossil genus †Paralebias is proposed with a subdivision into three species-groups. For the first time the unique larval stage of A. stuhlmanni and A. ndoano n.sp. is disclosed.

 Posted by at 8:54 am
Apr 282023

     Frans Vermeulen worked in conjunction with Jean Huber and Meija to redescribe Rivulus pacificus.  Two new species, Rivulus gomesi n. sp., and Rivulus paradiseus n. sp., were also described in this paper.

According to: 

Rivulus pacificus
Photo by Frans Vermeulen


Killi-Data Series 2023, 74-100, 14 figs.

Following new collections in coastal and inland north-western Colombia, Rivulus pacificus Huber, 1992, is redescribed based on live nearby topotypes, then redefined in a restricted sense, and two new cryptic congeners, also from the Colombia lowlands, are described as Rivulus gomesi n. sp., and Rivulus paradiseus n. sp., both from the north-western lowlands, in the Atrato river system, near Chigorodó, Antioquia for the former and in the Acandí river basin, facing the Caribbean coast near Acandí, close to the Panama border, for the latter. The three species form a group of closely related species, not morphologically related and not pattern-wise related to the elegans species group, dominant in the Northern Colombian Andes and inter-Andean valleys and vicariant. Instead, they are morphologically more related to the micropus species group with a huge distribution in northern and north-eastern South America. The three species are not separable by morpho-meristics but are diagnosed by a combination of pattern characters in male and female. R. gomesi is mainly separated from the similarly-morphed pacificus by the presence of a supracaudal ocellus in females and by body pattern (red lines faint and irregular vs. fully lineated in pacificus males) ; R. paradiseus mainly differs from R. gomesi, also with a supracaudal ocellus in female (unlike pacificus, missing one), by body pattern (5 to 6 evenly interrupted red lines vs. irregularly scattered red lines and by posterior Anal fin and basal Caudal fin with reticulated inner (green spots, not red) pattern vs. few red dots. R. gomesi and R. paradiseus do fit well into the micropus group according to latest evidence. On the contrary, the elegans species group differs in Colombia from all members of the micropus group by having a more forward set Dorsal fin relative to the Anal fin; truncated Caudal fin vs. rounded; a larger maximum size (up to 90 mm TL vs. 63 mm TL on average. The 3 species of the R. pacificus group are separated notably from vicariant R. elegans and its 3 allied (chucunaque, sucubti, that taxon being formally proposed as a junior synonym of chucunaque, and leucurus) by live pattern and morphology. Hypotheses to explain the present distribution are forwarded.


 Posted by at 7:55 am
Apr 282023

    Frans Vermeulen has described a new minature species of rivulus in the subgenus Owiyeye.  Rivulus sladkowkii is found in the village of Mitu, along the headwaters of the Vaupés River, eastern Colombia.  It is a member of the Rivulus romeri species group.


 Posted by at 7:51 am
Apr 192023

In a paper released on Wetlands – Volume 43, Issue 5, June 2023 Leptolebias opalescens, a critically endangered species from Brazil  is discussed.

Floresta do Camboatá, onde as nuvens dão vida a um peixe - ((o))eco





Leptolebias opalescens

Photo found on



Leptopanchax opalescens is a critically endangered small annual fish. Reproductive traits of this species were studied to improve our understanding of the strategies that facilitate the occupation of temporary wetlands. We compiled egg diameter and maximum total length data from 136 neotropical killifishes (Rivulidae) to establish comparisons between species with different life histories. We tested the hypothesis that annual killifishes have smaller body sizes and eggs than non-annual killifishes, which may be associated with different life spans and embryonic diapause. Fish were collected from the Guandu River Hydrographic Region (southeastern Brazil). DNA barcoding was employed to confirm the species’ identity. The phases of gonadal development and spawn type were described using histological techniques. Egg size and fecundity were determined. Females with batch spawning and males with continuous spawning were detected. The batch fecundity ranged from 22 to 32 vitellogenic oocytes (mean 27 ± 7 SD). Maximum body size was similar between the two life cycles (p = 0.24), but egg size was smaller for annual killifishes (p < 0.001). Spawning in batches, synchronous modal development of oocytes, continued production of sperm in males, and a complex process of embryonic diapause are reproductive traits that favor the resilience of L. opalescens and other annual fish in temporary wetlands. We conclude that body size is not related to lifespan and that factors underlying the selection of different egg sizes between annual and non-annual killifish species may be associated with different life history strategies to deal with stressful habitats.

 Posted by at 9:57 am
Apr 082023

     Currently I am working on adding pages for all members of the Mesoaphyosemion group.  This takes considerable time and what I have right now is just basic information.  Once the group is completed, I will go back and start adding breeding and maintenance information as well as things such as populations, photos and more meristics.  At some point I hope to add collection data too. 

 Posted by at 10:34 am
Apr 072023

     A recent 2023 article Enhancing mosquito predation activity of Mediterranean banded killifish (Aphanius fasciatus) by tidal recirculation runnels in the Po River Delta area” by Rodolfo VERONESI, Nicola PANDOLFI, Alberto ALBERANI, Romeo BELLINI Medical and Veterinary Entomology Department, Centro Agricoltura Ambiente “G. Nicoli”, Crevalcore (BO), Italy” discusses using Aphanius fasciatus for mosquito control in Italy.


Aphanius fasciatus picture found on

ABSTRACT:  Nature-protected coastal plain areas in the Po River Delta, Italy, are subjected to periodic flooding. Such phenomena create temporary water habitats conducive to the development of salt marsh mosquitoes, such as Aedes caspius (Pallas) and Aedes detritus (Haliday), which cause significant nuisance impacting the tourist industry.  Mosquito control is therefore required, but conflict arises about the need to safeguard endangered bird species typically nesting in the wetlands. Despite the fact that adopted mosquito control methods are designed to cause as little disturbance as possible, authorities responsible for nature conservation require that the possible impact of larval control activities are further reduced. These concerns have served as an incentive to seek out alternative control strategies, such as the enhancement of the predatory action of fish species inhabiting the salt marsh biotopes. The most abundant of these species is the native Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes) (Cyprinodontiformes Cyprinodontidae). The access of fish to isolated pools and lowlands subjected to occasional flooding can be promoted by connecting them to major permanent water bodies via shallow ditches or runnels, which are dug by hand. The results of four years of observations and larval sampling in a salt marsh area of about 4 ha, located in the natural reserve of “Sacca del Bellocchio” where a system of runnels has been planned and constructed, suggest that runnelling can be an effective, long-lasting larval control method, favouring the predatory action of fish.

 Posted by at 9:52 am
Suffusion theme